The Adil Shahi Kingdom
Yusuf Adil Shah was the son of Murad II, the Sultan of Turkey. After the Sultan's death and succession to throne by the crown prince, all other sons were executed. However, Yusuf's mother secretly replaced him with a slave boy and sent him to Persia. After many romantic adventures, Yusuf reached the court of the Bidar Sultanate. His bravery and personality raised him rapidly in Sultan's favor, resulting in his appointment as the Governor of Bijapur. He built the Citadel or Arkilla and the Faroukh Mahal. Yusuf was a man of culture. He invited poets and artisans from Persia, Turkey and Rome to his court. He married Punji, the sister of a Maratha warrior. When Yusuf died in 1510 A.D., Ismail, his son, was still a boy. Punji in male attire valiantly defended him from a coup to grab the throne. Ismail Adil Shah thus became the king of Bijapur, which till then was a province of Bahamani kingdom.
Ibrahim Adil Shah I who succeeded his father Ismail fortified the city and built the old Jami Masjid. Ali Adil Shah I who next ascended the throne, aligned his forces with other Muslim kings of Deccan and together, they brought down the Vijayanagar empire. With the loot gained, he launched ambitious projects . He built the Gagan Mahal, Ali Rauza (his own tomb), Chand Bawdi (a large well) and the Jami Masjid. Ali I had no son, so his nephew Ibrahim II was set on the throne. Ali I's queen Chand Bibi had to aid him till he came of age. Ibrahim II was noted for his valor, intelligence and leanings towards the Hindu music and philosophy. Under his patronage the Bijapur school of painting (see: Deccan Miniatures) reached its zenith. Muhammad Adil Shah succeeded his father Ibrahim II. He is renowned for Bijapur's grandest structure, the Gol Gumbaz, which has the biggest dome in the world with whispering gallery round about slightest sound is reproduced seven times. He also set up the historical Mallik-E-Maidan, the massive gun. Ali Adil Shah II inherited a troubled kingdom. He had to face the onslaught of Shivaji on one side and Aurangjeb on another. His mausoleum, Bara Kaman planned to dwarf all others was left unfinished due to his death.
Ibrahim Adilshah II, the fifth king of the Bahamani dynasty is known in the Indian history as "Jagadguru Badshah." He tried to bring in cultural harmony, between the Shiyas and the Sunnis (sects within Islamic religion) and between Hindus and Muslims through music. He was a great lover of music, played musical instruments, sang and composed praises of Hindu deities Saraswati and Ganapati. He wrote the book Kitab-E-Navras (Book of Nine Rasas) in Dakhani. It is a collection of 59 poems and 17 couplets. According to his court-poet Zuhuri, he wrote it to introduce the theory of nine Rasas, which occupies most important place in Indian aesthetics, to acquaint people who were only brought up in Persian ethos. The book opens with prayer to Saraswati, the Goddess of learning. He claimed that his father was divine Ganapati and mother the Holy Saraswati.