Medieval India


The Rajput period was an era of chivalry and feudalism. The Rajputs weakened each other by constant fighting. This allowed the foreigners (Turks) to embark on victorious campaigns using duplicity and deceit wherever military strength failed against Rajputs.

Mohammad Ghori defeated Prithviraj Chauhan, the Tomar ruler of Delhi, at the battle of Tarain in 1192 and left the Indian territories in the charge of his deputy, Qutubudin (reign - 1206 - 1210), who had started life as a slave. Khiljis, Tughlaqs, Sayyids and Lodis followed and this period is known as the Sultanate. When the power of the Sultans declined, the outlying provinces once again became important and the process of Hindu Islamic synthesis continued almost without any interruption.

Babur (reign - 1526-30), the founder of the Mughal Empire in India, was the descendant of Timur as well as Changez Khan. Ousted by his cousins, he came to India and defeated Ibrahim, the last Lodi Sultan in 1526 at the First Battle of Panipat. There was a brief interruption to Mughal rule when Babur's son Humayun (reign - 1530-40) was ousted from Delhi, by Sher Shah, an Afghan chieftain.

Sher Shah (reign - 1540-55), assumed power in the imperial capital for a short while. He is remembered as the builder of the Grand Trunk road that spanned the distance from Peshawar to Patna and also one who introduced major reforms in the revenue system, gratefully retained by the Mughals.

It was Babur's grandson Akbar (reign - 1556-1605), who consolidated political power and extended his empire over practically the whole of north India and parts of the south. Jahangir (reign - 1605-27) who succeeded Akbar was a pleasure loving man of refined taste. Shah Jahan (1628-58) his son, ascended the throne next. Shah Jahan's fame rests on the majestic buildings he has left behind - the Taj Mahal, the Red Fort and the Jama Masjid. Aurangzeb (reign - 1658-1707) was the last Mughal ruler.

In western India, Shivaji (1637-80) had forged the Marathas into an efficient military machine and given them a sense of national identity. They adopted guerrilla tactics to maul the Mughals and put a severe drain on their economic resources.

The contenders for political supremacy in the 17th and 18th Centuries included besides the Marathas, the Sikhs in Punjab and Hyder Ali (reign - 1721 - 1782) in Mysore. Tipu Sultan (reign - 1782 - 1799) - Hyder Ali's son and successor allied himself with the French against the British and strove to introduce the latest technical knowledge from Europe.


   HISTORY INDIA : India's History : Timeline of India

  1026 - Ghazni sacks Somnath Temple

  1191 - First Battle of Tarain

  1192 - Second Battle of Tarain

  1206 - Qutbuddin establishes the Slave Dynasty

  1221 - Mongol invasion under Genghis Khan

  1232 - Foundation of the Qutub Minar

  1288 - Marco Polo visits India

  1290 - Jalaludin Firuz Khalji establishes the Khalji dynasty

  1320 - Ghiyasuddin Tughluk founds the Tughluk dynasty

  1325 - Accession of Muhammad-bin-Tughluk

  1336 - Foundation of Vijayanagar (Deccan)

  1398 - Timur invades India

  1424 - Rise of the Bahmani dynasty (Deccan)

  1451 - The Lodi dynasty established in Delhi

  1469 - Birth of Guru Nanak - The Founder of Sikhism

  1489 - Adil Shah dynasty at Bijapur

  1498 - First voyage of Vasco da gama

  1510 - Portuguese capture Goa

  1526 - Establishment of the Mughul Dynasty; First Battle of Panipat

  1526-1530 - Reign of Babur

  1530 - Humayun succeeds Babur

  1539 - Sher Shah Suri defeats Humayan

  1555 - Humayun recovers the throne of Delhi

  1556 - Accession of Akbar

  1565 - Battle of Talikota

  1568 - Fall of Chittor Garh

  1576 - Battle of Haldighati

  1577 - Akbar troops invade Khandesh

  1597 - Akbar completes his conquests

  1600 - Charter to the English East India Company

  1605 - Jahangir

  1609 - The Dutch open a factory at Pulicat

  1615 - Submission of Mewar to the Mughals

  1620 - Capture of Kangra Fort

  1623 - Shah Jahan revolts against Jahangir

  1628 - Shah Jahan proclaimed Emperor

  1636 - Aurangzeb appointed Viceroy of Deccan

  1646 - Shivaji captures Torna

  1658 - Coronation of Aurangzeb

  1666 - Death of Shah Jahan

  1689 - Execution of Sambhaji

  1700 - Death of Rajaram

  1707 - Death of Aurangzeb

  1720 - Accession of Baji Rao Peshwa at Poona

  1742 - Marathas invade Bengal

  1748 - First Anglo-French war

  1750 - War of the Deccan; Death of Nasir Jang

  1756 - Siraj-ud-daulah captures Calcutta